An accent is a momentary stress or emphasis on a particular note. We use accents to articulate rhythmic groups.So that they contribute to the performance of a musical phrase.
There are various kinds of accents in the music. We can create an emphasis by placing longer notes among shorter notes. We call this an agogic accent. For example, a half note among quarter notes. We can also create an emphasis by placing higher pitch notes among others. We call this a tonic accent. Another way of creating an emphasis is using louder sounds. To do this we emphasize the attack of the sound. We call this a dynamic accent or stress accent.
There are two different kinds of dynamic accents. The first one is the percussive accent and the second one is the pressure accent. We can also classify these accents as light accents, medium accents, and strong (or heavy) accents. To indicate these, we use accent marks in musical notation. Let’s have a look at all these dynamic accents in a table and learn them in detail.
Here are the common accents used in music.
Let’s learn them in detail.
Staccato is a musical articulation which signifies a note of shortened duration, separated from the following note. It is a simple dot that you place below or below notes. To perform a staccato, we should shorten the note value, but while doing that we should still hear the pitch of the note clearly.
Staccatissimo is shorter than staccato. It indicates that the note is held for an exaggerated short amount of time. To hear the pitch of the note is harder when you apply staccatissimo. The notes with staccatissimo are extremely separated and distinct.
Accent (Normal accent, Horizontal accent)
Normal accent indicates that the marked note should have an emphasized beginning (or hard attack). So when you use the normal accent, you basically play the marked notes louder than the surrounding unaccented notes in the piece.
Marcato (Vertical accent, martellato)
Marcato is a very strong accent. Sometimes it is known as Martellato which means “Hammered” in Italian. In other words, it resembles a blow of a hammer. Marcato is often used with string instruments.
Tenuto is one of the earliest accents used in musical notation. It means “To hold” in Italian and its precise meaning is contextual. It may indicate that we should play a note at its full length. Also, it may indicate that we should play a note slightly louder. When there are several notes with tenuto marks in a row, it may indicate that we should separate a note with a little space from surrounding notes.It can alter either the dynamic or the duration of a note. Either way, it indicates an emphasis or accent on the marked note. Sometimes we call tenuto a legato accent.