When we listen to a piece of music, there are certain elements that we’ll notice. It may be slow or fast, soft or loud, monophonic or polyphonic etc.
Elements of music
Pitch is the relative position of a tone within a range of musical sounds. It is conditioned by its frequency relative to other notes. It is the perceptual quality of frequency of a sound.
Rhythm is the time element of music. Basically, it is regular recurrence or pattern of musical sounds and silences. There are certain elements of rhythm such as pulse, beat, measure, tempo, duration etc.
Melody is the linear succession of musical tones. It can move up, down or stay at the same pitch using repeated tones. Melodies often consist of one or more musical phrases in various forms.
Harmony is the use of simultaneous pitches or chords. So it is the vertical element of music. The chord progression is a key element of harmony.
Timbre or tone color is the tone quality of a musical sound. It changes from instrument to instrument. The characteristics of those instruments determines the timbre.
Dynamics determines the loudness of notes or phrases in a piece of music.
Texture is how we combine the materials of music. These materials can be melodic, rhythmic or harmonic. So that a piece of music can be monophonic or polyphonic etc.
Basically, form is the order of events in a piece. These events can be melodic, rhythmic or harmonic.